Some key figures from both parties have rallied behind Macron. The National Front, reeling from a worse than expected score for chief Marine Le Pen in the presidential election, could miss its target to get enough lawmakers to form a parliamentary group. It is expected though to improve on the two deputies it had in the previous legislature. In a country with unemployment hovering near 10 percent and at risk of breaking its public deficit commitments, Macron was elected president in May on pledges to overhaul labor rules to make hiring and firing easier, cut corporate tax and invest billions in areas including job training and renewable energy. Macron also promised to clean up French politics after a string of scandals - a vow already tested by conflict of interest allegations against his former campaign chief Richard Ferrand, as well as reports that centrist ally Francois Bayrou's MoDem party used EU cash to fund Paris staff jobs. "I thought about voting for Macron but I didn't," said pensioner Jacqueline Laurent after casting her ballot in the eastern town of Annecy, close to the Swiss border. "With Ferrand and Bayrou we could see them falling back into the same old ways, so that was that. I changed my mind." Polling stations close at 1800 (1600 GMT) in smaller cities and two hours later in Paris and other big cities. Results will come in slowly, alongside pollsters' estimates of the results. Very few lawmakers are expected to be elected directly in the first round.
“Fringe today” — which is functionally the same as what was available by the 1950s — “is mass-produced and only a few inches long; it’s a lightweight synthetic, and the knit that’s used is not very dense, so that you เสื้อครอบครัว พ่อ แม่ ลูก can apply several layers without it becoming heavy.” Twenties fringe, in contrast, was woven into a dense knit from innumerable silk fibers. Multiplied across enough rows to cover a dress, it quickly surpassed 25 pounds and tangled easily — hardly ideal for a Charleston. When it did appear, it tended to be in moderation, Mears says. “Designers, particularly Madame Vionnet, used fringe as a decorative element to help a garment drape correctly.” Aesthetics were secondary to the structural function that fringe offered, of weighting the grain of fabric in a particular direction. A 1976 reproduction of a 1920s dress in green fringe, worn by Bobbie Miller, recalls flapper era. “The full-fringe dresses did exist, but they were very different from what we have now,” Mears says. “While the kinetic quality was important, and that heavy fringe did move, the weight added a sense of gracefulness.” Chanel , Vionnet , and Molyneux all made a version of the fully fringed dress, although in many cases the fringe was really strands of gelatin sequins , which were just as delicate to attach. Whatever the material, it was stitched on by hand, adding to the cost of an already expensive textile. It wasn’t a coincidence that these styles came from the highest tiers of European design — the average flapper wouldn’t have been able to swing what we think of as a flapper dress. The 1930s emergence of synthetic fibers like nylon changed all that. By the time MGM charged Walter Plunkett with designing the costumes for Singin’ In the Rain in 1952, lightweight fringe was available everywhere.
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